Kubernetes

ID: kubernetes

Kubernetes plugin for Jenkins

Jenkins Plugin GitHub release Jenkins Plugin Installs

Jenkins plugin to run dynamic agents in a Kubernetes cluster.

Based on the Scaling Docker with Kubernetes article, automates the scaling of Jenkins agents running in Kubernetes.

The plugin creates a Kubernetes Pod for each agent started, and stops it after each build.

Agents are launched as inbound agents, so it is expected that the container connects automatically to the Jenkins controller. For that some environment variables are automatically injected:

  • JENKINS_URL : Jenkins web interface url
  • JENKINS_SECRET : the secret key for authentication
  • JENKINS_AGENT_NAME : the name of the Jenkins agent
  • JENKINS_NAME : the name of the Jenkins agent (Deprecated. Only here for backwards compatibility)

Tested with jenkins/inbound-agent, see the Docker image source code.

It is not required to run the Jenkins controller inside Kubernetes.

Generic Setup

Prerequisites

  • A running Kubernetes cluster 1.14 or later. For OpenShift users, this means OpenShift Container Platform 4.x.
  • A Jenkins instance installed
  • The Jenkins Kubernetes plugin installed

Configuration

Fill in the Kubernetes plugin configuration. In order to do that, you will open the Jenkins UI and navigate to Manage Jenkins -> Manage Nodes and Clouds -> Configure Clouds -> Add a new cloud -> Kubernetes and enter the Kubernetes URL and Jenkins URL appropriately, unless Jenkins is running in Kubernetes in which case the defaults work.

Supported credentials include:

  • Username/password
  • Secret File (kubeconfig file)
  • Secret text (Token-based authentication) (OpenShift)
  • Google Service Account from private key (GKE authentication)
  • X.509 Client Certificate

To test this connection is successful you can use the Test Connection button to ensure there is adequate communication from Jenkins to the Kubernetes cluster, as seen below

image

In addition to that, in the Kubernetes Pod Template section, we need to configure the image that will be used to spin up the agent pod. We do not recommend overriding the jnlp container except under unusual circumstances. for your agent, you can use the default Jenkins agent image available in Docker Hub. In the ‘Kubernetes Pod Template’ section you need to specify the following (the rest of the configuration is up to you): Kubernetes Pod Template Name - can be any and will be shown as a prefix for unique generated agent’ names, which will be run automatically during builds Docker image - the docker image name that will be used as a reference to spin up a new Jenkins agent, as seen below

image

If you check WebSocket then agents will connect over HTTP(S) rather than the Jenkins service TCP port. This is unnecessary when the Jenkins controller runs in the same Kubernetes cluster, but can greatly simplify setup when agents are in an external cluster and the Jenkins controller is not directly accessible (for example, it is behind a reverse proxy). See JEP-222 for more.

Note: if your Jenkins controller is outside the cluster and uses a self-signed HTTPS certificate, you will need some additional configuration.

Restricting what jobs can use your configured cloud

Clouds can be configured to only allow certain jobs to use them.

To enable this, in your cloud's advanced configuration check the Restrict pipeline support to authorized folders box. For a job to then use this cloud configuration you will need to add it in the jobs folder's configuration.

Usage

Overview

The Kubernetes plugin allocates Jenkins agents in Kubernetes pods. Within these pods, there is always one special container jnlp that is running the Jenkins agent. Other containers can run arbitrary processes of your choosing, and it is possible to run commands dynamically in any container in the agent pod.

Using a label

Pod templates defined using the user interface declare a label. When a freestyle job or a pipeline job using node('some-label') uses a label declared by a pod template, the Kubernetes Cloud allocates a new pod to run the Jenkins agent.

It should be noted that the main reason to use the global pod template definition is to migrate a huge corpus of existing projects (including freestyle) to run on Kubernetes without changing job definitions. New users setting up new Kubernetes builds should use the podTemplate step as shown in the example snippets here.

Using the pipeline step

The podTemplate step defines an ephemeral pod template. It is created while the pipeline execution is within the podTemplate block. It is immediately deleted afterwards. Such pod templates are not intended to be shared with other builds or projects in the Jenkins instance.

The following idiom creates a pod template with a generated unique label (available as POD_LABEL) and runs commands inside it.

podTemplate {
    node(POD_LABEL) {
        // pipeline steps...
    }
}

Commands will be executed by default in the jnlp container, where the Jenkins agent is running. (The jnlp name is historical and is retained for compatibility.)

This will run in the jnlp container:

podTemplate {
    node(POD_LABEL) {
        stage('Run shell') {
            sh 'echo hello world'
        }
    }
}

Find more examples in the examples dir.

The default jnlp agent image used can be customized by adding it to the template

containerTemplate(name: 'jnlp', image: 'jenkins/inbound-agent:4.7-1', args: '${computer.jnlpmac} ${computer.name}'),

or with the yaml syntax

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
spec:
  containers:
  - name: jnlp
    image: 'jenkins/inbound-agent:4.7-1'
    args: ['\$(JENKINS_SECRET)', '\$(JENKINS_NAME)']

Multiple containers support

Multiple containers can be defined for the agent pod, with shared resources, like mounts. Ports in each container can be accessed as in any Kubernetes pod, by using localhost.

The container step allows executing commands into each container.


Note Due to implementation constraints, there can be issues when executing commands in different containers if they run using different uids. It is recommended to use the same uid across the different containers part of the same pod to avoid any issue.

podTemplate(containers: [
    containerTemplate(name: 'maven', image: 'maven:3.8.1-jdk-8', command: 'sleep', args: '99d'),
    containerTemplate(name: 'golang', image: 'golang:1.16.5', command: 'sleep', args: '99d')
  ]) {

    node(POD_LABEL) {
        stage('Get a Maven project') {
            git 'https://github.com/jenkinsci/kubernetes-plugin.git'
            container('maven') {
                stage('Build a Maven project') {
                    sh 'mvn -B -ntp clean install'
                }
            }
        }

        stage('Get a Golang project') {
            git url: 'https://github.com/hashicorp/terraform.git', branch: 'main'
            container('golang') {
                stage('Build a Go project') {
                    sh '''
                    mkdir -p /go/src/github.com/hashicorp
                    ln -s `pwd` /go/src/github.com/hashicorp/terraform
                    cd /go/src/github.com/hashicorp/terraform && make
                    '''
                }
            }
        }

    }
}

or

podTemplate(yaml: '''
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: maven
        image: maven:3.8.1-jdk-8
        command:
        - sleep
        args:
        - 99d
      - name: golang
        image: golang:1.16.5
        command:
        - sleep
        args:
        - 99d
''') {
  node(POD_LABEL) {
    stage('Get a Maven project') {
      git 'https://github.com/jenkinsci/kubernetes-plugin.git'
      container('maven') {
        stage('Build a Maven project') {
          sh 'mvn -B -ntp clean install'
        }
      }
    }

    stage('Get a Golang project') {
      git url: 'https://github.com/hashicorp/terraform-provider-google.git', branch: 'main'
      container('golang') {
        stage('Build a Go project') {
          sh '''
            mkdir -p /go/src/github.com/hashicorp
            ln -s `pwd` /go/src/github.com/hashicorp/terraform
            cd /go/src/github.com/hashicorp/terraform && make
          '''
        }
      }
    }

  }
}

POD_CONTAINER variable

The variable POD_CONTAINER contains the name of the container in the current context. It is defined only within a container block.

podTemplate(containers: […]) {
  node(POD_LABEL) {
    stage('Run shell') {
      container('mycontainer') {
        sh "echo hello from $POD_CONTAINER" // displays 'hello from mycontainer'
      }
    }
  }
}

Configuration reference

Pod template

Pod templates are used to create agents. They can be either configured via the user interface, or in a pipeline, using the podTemplate step. Either way it provides access to the following fields:

  • cloud The name of the cloud as defined in Jenkins settings. Defaults to kubernetes
  • name The name of the pod. This is only used for inheritance.
  • namespace The namespace of the pod.
  • label The node label. This is how the pod template can be referred to when asking for an agent through the node step. In a pipeline, it is recommended to omit this field and rely on the generated label that can be referred to using the POD_LABEL variable defined within the podTemplate block.
  • yaml yaml representation of the Pod, to allow setting any values not supported as fields
  • yamlMergeStrategy merge() or override(). Controls whether the yaml definition overrides or is merged with the yaml definition inherited from pod templates declared with inheritFrom. Defaults to override() (for backward compatibility reasons).
  • containers The container templates part of the pod (see below for details).
  • serviceAccount The service account of the pod.
  • nodeSelector The node selector of the pod.
  • nodeUsageMode Either NORMAL or EXCLUSIVE, this controls whether Jenkins only schedules jobs with label expressions matching or use the node as much as possible.
  • volumes Volumes that are defined for the pod and are mounted by ALL containers.
  • envVars Environment variables that are applied to ALL containers.
    • envVar An environment variable whose value is defined inline.
    • secretEnvVar An environment variable whose value is derived from a Kubernetes secret.
  • imagePullSecrets List of pull secret names, to pull images from a private Docker registry.
  • annotations Annotations to apply to the pod.
  • inheritFrom List of one or more pod templates to inherit from (more details below).
  • slaveConnectTimeout Timeout in seconds for an agent to be online (more details below).
  • podRetention Controls the behavior of keeping agent pods. Can be 'never()', 'onFailure()', 'always()', or 'default()' - if empty will default to deleting the pod after activeDeadlineSeconds has passed.
  • activeDeadlineSeconds If podRetention is set to never() or onFailure(), the pod is deleted after this deadline is passed.
  • idleMinutes Allows the pod to remain active for reuse until the configured number of minutes has passed since the last step was executed on it. Use this only when defining a pod template in the user interface.
  • showRawYaml Enable or disable the output of the raw pod manifest. Defaults to true
  • runAsUser The user ID to run all containers in the pod as.
  • runAsGroup The group ID to run all containers in the pod as.
  • hostNetwork Use the hosts network.
  • workspaceVolume The type of volume to use for the workspace.
    • emptyDirWorkspaceVolume (default): an empty dir allocated on the host machine
    • dynamicPVC() : a persistent volume claim managed dynamically. It is deleted at the same time as the pod.
    • hostPathWorkspaceVolume() : a host path volume
    • nfsWorkspaceVolume() : a nfs volume
    • persistentVolumeClaimWorkspaceVolume() : an existing persistent volume claim by name.

Container template

Container templates are part of pod. They can be configured via the user interface or in a pipeline and allow you to set the following fields:

  • name The name of the container.
  • image The image of the container.
  • envVars Environment variables that are applied to the container (supplementing and overriding env vars that are set on pod level).
    • envVar An environment variable whose value is defined inline.
    • secretEnvVar An environment variable whose value is derived from a Kubernetes secret.
  • command The command the container will execute. Will overwrite the Docker entrypoint. A typical value is sleep.
  • args The arguments passed to the command. A typical value is 99999999.
  • ttyEnabled Flag to mark that tty should be enabled.
  • livenessProbe Parameters to be added to a exec liveness probe in the container (does not support httpGet liveness probes)
  • ports Expose ports on the container.
  • alwaysPullImage The container will pull the image upon starting.
  • runAsUser The user ID to run the container as.
  • runAsGroup The group ID to run the container as.

Specifying a different default agent connection timeout

By default, the agent connection timeout is set to 1000 seconds. It can be customized using a system property. Please refer to the section below.

Using yaml to define Pod Templates

In order to support any possible value in Kubernetes Pod object, we can pass a yaml snippet that will be used as a base for the template. If any other properties are set outside the YAML, they will take precedence.

podTemplate(yaml: '''
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Pod
    metadata:
      labels: 
        some-label: some-label-value
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: busybox
        image: busybox
        command:
        - sleep
        args:
        - 99d
    ''') {
    node(POD_LABEL) {
      container('busybox') {
        echo POD_CONTAINER // displays 'busybox'
        sh 'hostname'
      }
    }
}

You can use readFile or readTrusted steps to load the yaml from a file. Also note that in declarative pipelines the yamlFile can be used (see this example).

Example

pod.yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
spec:
  containers:
  - name: maven
    image: maven:3.8.1-jdk-8
    command:
    - sleep
    args:
    - 99d
  - name: golang
    image: golang:1.16.5
    command:
    - sleep
    args:
    - 99d

Jenkinsfile

podTemplate(yaml: readTrusted('pod.yaml')) {
  node(POD_LABEL) {
    // ...
  }
}

Liveness Probe Usage

containerTemplate(name: 'busybox', image: 'busybox', command: 'sleep', args: '99d',
                  livenessProbe: containerLivenessProbe(execArgs: 'some --command', initialDelaySeconds: 30, timeoutSeconds: 1, failureThreshold: 3, periodSeconds: 10, successThreshold: 1)
)

See Defining a liveness command for more details.

Inheritance

Overview

A pod template may or may not inherit from an existing template. This means that the pod template will inherit node selector, service account, image pull secrets, container templates and volumes from the template it inherits from.

yaml is merged according to the value of yamlMergeStrategy.

Service account and Node selector when are overridden completely substitute any possible value found on the 'parent'.

Container templates that are added to the podTemplate, that has a matching containerTemplate (a container template with the same name) in the 'parent' template, will inherit the configuration of the parent containerTemplate. If no matching container template is found, the template is added as is.

Volume inheritance works exactly as Container templates.

Image Pull Secrets are combined (all secrets defined both on 'parent' and 'current' template are used).

In the example below, we will inherit from a pod template we created previously, and will just override the version of maven so that it uses jdk-11 instead:

image

podTemplate(inheritFrom: 'mypod', containers: [
    containerTemplate(name: 'maven', image: 'maven:3.8.1-jdk-11')
  ]) {
  node(POD_LABEL) {
    …
  }
}

Or in declarative pipeline

pipeline {
  agent {
    kubernetes {
      inheritFrom 'mypod'
      yaml '''
      spec:
        containers:
        - name: maven
          image: maven:3.8.1-jdk-11
'''
      …
    }
  }
  stages {
    …
  }
}

Note that we only need to specify the things that are different. So, command and arguments are not specified, as they are inherited. Also, the golang container will be added as defined in the 'parent' template.

Multiple Pod template inheritance

Field inheritFrom may refer a single podTemplate or multiple separated by space. In the later case each template will be processed in the order they appear in the list (later items overriding earlier ones). In any case if the referenced template is not found it will be ignored.

Nesting Pod templates

Field inheritFrom provides an easy way to compose podTemplates that have been pre-configured. In many cases it would be useful to define and compose podTemplates directly in the pipeline using groovy. This is made possible via nesting. You can nest multiple pod templates together in order to compose a single one.

The example below composes two different pod templates in order to create one with maven and docker capabilities.

podTemplate(containers: [containerTemplate(image: 'docker', name: 'docker', command: 'cat', ttyEnabled: true)]) {
    podTemplate(containers: [containerTemplate(image: 'maven', name: 'maven', command: 'cat', ttyEnabled: true)]) {
      node(POD_LABEL) { // gets a pod with both docker and maven
        …
      }
    }
}

This feature is extra useful, pipeline library developers as it allows you to wrap pod templates into functions and let users nest those functions according to their needs.

For example one could create functions for their podTemplates and import them for use. Say here's our file src/com/foo/utils/PodTemplates.groovy:

package com.foo.utils

public void dockerTemplate(body) {
  podTemplate(
        containers: [containerTemplate(name: 'docker', image: 'docker', command: 'sleep', args: '99d')],
        volumes: [hostPathVolume(hostPath: '/var/run/docker.sock', mountPath: '/var/run/docker.sock')]) {
    body.call()
}
}

public void mavenTemplate(body) {
  podTemplate(
        containers: [containerTemplate(name: 'maven', image: 'maven', command: 'sleep', args: '99d')],
        volumes: [secretVolume(secretName: 'maven-settings', mountPath: '/root/.m2'),
                  persistentVolumeClaim(claimName: 'maven-local-repo', mountPath: '/root/.m2repo')]) {
    body.call()
}
}

return this

Then consumers of the library could just express the need for a maven pod with docker capabilities by combining the two, however once again, you will need to express the specific container you wish to execute commands in. You can NOT omit the node statement.

Note that POD_LABEL will be the innermost generated label to get a node which has all the outer pods available on the node, as shown in this example:

import com.foo.utils.PodTemplates

podTemplates = new PodTemplates()

podTemplates.dockerTemplate {
  podTemplates.mavenTemplate {
    node(POD_LABEL) {
      container('docker') {
        sh "echo hello from $POD_CONTAINER" // displays 'hello from docker'
      }
      container('maven') {
        sh "echo hello from $POD_CONTAINER" // displays 'hello from maven'
      }
     }
  }
}

In scripted pipelines, there are cases where this implicit inheritance via nested declaration is not wanted or another explicit inheritance is preferred. In this case, use inheritFrom '' to remove any inheritance, or inheritFrom 'otherParent' to override it.

Declarative Pipeline

Declarative agents can be defined from yaml

pipeline {
  agent {
    kubernetes {
      yaml '''
        apiVersion: v1
        kind: Pod
        metadata:
          labels:
            some-label: some-label-value
        spec:
          containers:
          - name: maven
            image: maven:alpine
            command:
            - cat
            tty: true
          - name: busybox
            image: busybox
            command:
            - cat
            tty: true
        '''
    }
  }
  stages {
    stage('Run maven') {
      steps {
        container('maven') {
          sh 'mvn -version'
        }
        container('busybox') {
          sh '/bin/busybox'
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

or using yamlFile to keep the pod template in a separate KubernetesPod.yaml file

pipeline {
  agent {
    kubernetes {
      yamlFile 'KubernetesPod.yaml'
    }
  }
  stages {
    …
  }
}

Note that it was previously possible to define containerTemplate but that has been deprecated in favor of the yaml format.

pipeline {
  agent {
    kubernetes {
      //cloud 'kubernetes'
      containerTemplate {
        name 'maven'
        image 'maven:3.8.1-jdk-8'
        command 'sleep'
        args '99d'
      }
    }
  }
  stages {
    …
  }
}

Run steps within a container by default. Steps will be nested within an implicit container(name) {...} block instead of being executed in the jnlp container.

pipeline {
  agent {
    kubernetes {
      defaultContainer 'maven'
      yamlFile 'KubernetesPod.yaml'
    }
  }

  stages {
    stage('Run maven') {
      steps {
        sh 'mvn -version'
      }
    }
  }
}

Run the Pipeline or individual stage within a custom workspace - not required unless explicitly stated.

pipeline {
  agent {
    kubernetes {
      customWorkspace 'some/other/path'
      defaultContainer 'maven'
      yamlFile 'KubernetesPod.yaml'
    }
  }

  stages {
    stage('Run maven') {
      steps {
        sh 'mvn -version'
        sh "echo Workspace dir is ${pwd()}"
      }
    }
  }
}

Default inheritance

Unlike scripted k8s template, declarative templates do not inherit from parent template. Since the agents declared at stage level can override a global agent, implicit inheritance was leading to confusion.

You need to explicitly declare the inheritance if necessary using the field inheritFrom.

In the following example, nested-pod will only contain the maven container.

pipeline {
  agent {
    kubernetes {
      yaml '''
        spec:
        containers:
        - name: golang
            image: golang:1.16.5
            command:
            - sleep
            args:
            - 99d
        '''
    }
  }
  stages {
    stage('Run maven') {
        agent {
            kubernetes {
                yaml '''
                    spec:
                    containers:
                    - name: maven
                      image: maven:3.8.1-jdk-8
                      command:
                      - sleep
                      args:
                      - 99d
                    '''
            }
        }
      steps {
        …
      }
    }
  }
}

Misc.

Accessing container logs from the pipeline

If you use the containerTemplate to run some service in the background (e.g. a database for your integration tests), you might want to access its log from the pipeline. This can be done with the containerLog step, which prints the log of the requested container to the build log.

Required Parameters

  • name the name of the container to get logs from, as defined in podTemplate. Parameter name can be omitted in simple usage:
containerLog 'mongodb'

Optional Parameters

  • returnLog return the log instead of printing it to the build log (default: false)
  • tailingLines only return the last n lines of the log (optional)
  • sinceSeconds only return the last n seconds of the log (optional)
  • limitBytes limit output to n bytes (from the beginning of the log, not exact).

Also see the online help and examples/containerLog.groovy.

Features controlled using system properties

Please read Features controlled by system properties page to know how to set up system properties within Jenkins.

  • KUBERNETES_JENKINS_URL : Jenkins URL to be used by agents. This is meant to be used for OEM integration.
  • io.jenkins.plugins.kubernetes.disableNoDelayProvisioning (since 1.19.1) Whether to disable the no-delay provisioning strategy the plugin uses (defaults to false).
  • jenkins.host.address : (for unit tests) controls the host agents should use to contact Jenkins
  • org.csanchez.jenkins.plugins.kubernetes.PodTemplate.connectionTimeout : The time in seconds to wait before considering the pod scheduling has failed (defaults to 1000)
  • org.csanchez.jenkins.plugins.kubernetes.pipeline.ContainerExecDecorator.stdinBufferSize : stdin buffer size in bytes for commands sent to Kubernetes exec api. A low value will cause slowness in commands executed. A higher value will consume more memory (defaults to 16*1024)
  • org.csanchez.jenkins.plugins.kubernetes.pipeline.ContainerExecDecorator.websocketConnectionTimeout : Time to wait for the websocket used by container step to connect (defaults to 30)

Running on OpenShift

Random UID problem

OpenShift runs containers using a random UID that is overriding what is specified in Docker images. For this reason, you may end up with the following warning in your build

[WARNING] HOME is set to / in the jnlp container. You may encounter troubles when using tools or ssh client. This usually happens if the uid doesnt have any entry in /etc/passwd. Please add a user to your Dockerfile or set the HOME environment variable to a valid directory in the pod template definition.

At the moment the jenkinsci agent image is not built for OpenShift and will issue this warning.

This issue can be circumvented in various ways:

  • build a docker image for OpenShift in order to behave when running using an arbitrary uid.
  • override HOME environment variable in the pod spec to use /home/jenkins and mount a volume to /home/jenkins to ensure the user running the container can write to it

See this example configuration.

Running with OpenShift 3

OpenShift 3 is based on an older version of Kubernetes, which is not anymore directly supported since Kubernetes plugin version 1.26.0.

To get agents working for Openshift 3, add this Node Selector to your Pod Templates:

beta.kubernetes.io/os=linux

Windows support

You can run pods on Windows if your cluster has Windows nodes. See the example.

Constraints

Multiple containers can be defined in a pod. One of them is automatically created with name jnlp, and runs the Jenkins JNLP agent service, with args ${computer.jnlpmac} ${computer.name}, and will be the container acting as Jenkins agent.

Other containers must run a long running process, so the container does not exit. If the default entrypoint or command just runs something and exit then it should be overridden with something like cat with ttyEnabled: true.

WARNING If you want to provide your own Docker image for the inbound agent, you must name the container jnlp so it overrides the default one. Failing to do so will result in two agents trying to concurrently connect to the controller.

Configuration on minikube

Create and start minikube

The client certificate needs to be converted to PKCS, will need a password

openssl pkcs12 -export -out ~/.minikube/minikube.pfx -inkey ~/.minikube/apiserver.key -in ~/.minikube/apiserver.crt -certfile ~/.minikube/ca.crt -passout pass:secret

Validate that the certificates work

curl --cacert ~/.minikube/ca.crt --cert ~/.minikube/minikube.pfx:secret --cert-type P12 https://$(minikube ip):8443

Add a Jenkins credential of type certificate, upload it from ~/.minikube/minikube.pfx, password secret

Fill Kubernetes server certificate key with the contents of ~/.minikube/ca.crt

Configuration on Google Container Engine

Create a cluster

gcloud container clusters create jenkins --num-nodes 1 --machine-type g1-small

and note the admin password and server certificate.

Or use Google Developer Console to create a Container Engine cluster, then run

gcloud container clusters get-credentials jenkins
kubectl config view --raw

the last command will output kubernetes cluster configuration including API server URL, admin password and root certificate

Troubleshooting

First watch if the Jenkins agent pods are started. Make sure you are in the correct cluster and namespace.

kubectl get -a pods --watch

If they are in a different state than Running, use describe to get the events

kubectl describe pods/my-jenkins-agent

If they are Running, use logs to get the log output

kubectl logs -f pods/my-jenkins-agent jnlp

If pods are not started or for any other error, check the logs on the controller side.

For more detail, configure a new Jenkins log recorder for org.csanchez.jenkins.plugins.kubernetes at ALL level.

To inspect the json messages sent back and forth to the Kubernetes API server you can configure a new Jenkins log recorder for okhttp3 at DEBUG level.

Deleting pods in bad state

kubectl get pods -o name --selector=jenkins=slave --all-namespaces  | xargs -I {} kubectl delete {}

Pipeline sh step hangs when multiple containers are used

To debug this you need to set -Dorg.jenkinsci.plugins.durabletask.BourneShellScript.LAUNCH_DIAGNOSTICS=true system property and then restart the pipeline. Most likely in the console log you will see the following:

sh: can't create /home/jenkins/agent/workspace/thejob@tmp/durable-e0b7cd27/jenkins-log.txt: Permission denied
sh: can't create /home/jenkins/agent/workspace/thejob@tmp/durable-e0b7cd27/jenkins-result.txt.tmp: Permission denied
mv: can't rename '/home/jenkins/agent/workspace/thejob@tmp/durable-e0b7cd27/jenkins-result.txt.tmp': No such file or directory
touch: /home/jenkins/agent/workspace/thejob@tmp/durable-e0b7cd27/jenkins-log.txt: Permission denied
touch: /home/jenkins/agent/workspace/thejob@tmp/durable-e0b7cd27/jenkins-log.txt: Permission denied
touch: /home/jenkins/agent/workspace/thejob@tmp/durable-e0b7cd27/jenkins-log.txt: Permission denied

Usually this happens when UID of the user in jnlp container differs from the one in another container(s). All containers you use should have the same UID of the user, also this can be achieved by setting securityContext:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
spec:
  securityContext:
    runAsUser: 1000 # default UID of jenkins user in agent image
  containers:
  - name: maven
    image: maven:3.8.1-jdk-8
    command:
    - cat
    tty: true

Using WebSockets with a Jenkins controller with self-signed HTTPS certificate

Using WebSockets is the easiest and recommended way to establish the connection between agents and a Jenkins controller running outside the cluster. However, if your Jenkins controller has HTTPS configured with self-signed certificate, you'll need to make sure the agent container trusts the CA. To do that, you can extend the jenkins/inbound-agent image and add your certificate as follows:

FROM jenkins/inbound-agent

USER root

ADD cert.pem /tmp/cert.pem

RUN keytool -noprompt -storepass changeit \
  -keystore "$JAVA_HOME/jre/lib/security/cacerts" \
  -import -file /tmp/cert.pem -alias jenkinsMaster && \
  rm -f /tmp/cert.pem

USER jenkins

Then, use it as the jnlp container for the pod template as usual. No command or args need to be specified.

Note: when using the WebSocket mode, the -disableHttpsCertValidation on the jenkins/inbound-agent becomes unavailable, as well as -cert, and that's why you have to extend the docker image.

Building and Testing

Integration tests will use the currently configured context auto-detected from kube config file or service account.

Manual Testing

Run mvn clean install and copy target/kubernetes.hpi to Jenkins plugins folder.

Running Kubernetes Integration Tests

Please note that the system you run mvn on needs to be reachable from the cluster. If you see the agents happen to connect to the wrong host, see you can use jenkins.host.address as mentioned above.

Integration Tests with Minikube

For integration tests install and start minikube. Tests will detect it and run a set of integration tests in a new namespace.

Some integration tests run a local jenkins, so the host that runs them needs to be accessible from the kubernetes cluster. By default Jenkins will listen on 192.168.64.1 interface only, for security reasons. If your minikube is not running in that network, pass connectorHost to maven, ie.

mvn clean install -DconnectorHost=$(minikube ip | sed -e 's/\([0-9]*\.[0-9]*\.[0-9]*\).*/\1.1/')

If you don't mind others in your network being able to use your test jenkins you could just use this:

mvn clean install -DconnectorHost=0.0.0.0

Then your test jenkins will listen on all ip addresses so that the build pods will be able to connect from the pods in your minikube VM to your host.

If your minikube is running in a VM (e.g. on virtualbox) and the host running mvn does not have a public hostname for the VM to access, you can set the jenkins.host.address system property to the (host-only or NAT) IP of your host:

mvn clean install -Djenkins.host.address=192.168.99.1

Integration Tests with Microk8s

If Microk8s is running and is the default context in your ~/.kube/config, just run as

mvn clean install -Pmicrok8s

This assumes that from a pod, the host system is accessible as IP address 10.1.1.1. It might be some variant such as 10.1.37.1, in which case you would need to set -DconnectorHost=… -Djenkins.host.address=… instead. To see the actual address, try:

ifdata -pa cni0

Or to verify the networking inside a pod:

kubectl run --rm --image=praqma/network-multitool --restart=Never --attach sh ip route | fgrep 'default via'

Integration Tests in a Different Cluster

Try

bash test-in-k8s.sh

Docker image

Docker image for Jenkins, with plugin installed. Based on the official image.

Running the Docker image

docker run --rm --name jenkins -p 8080:8080 -p 50000:50000 -v /var/jenkins_home csanchez/jenkins-kubernetes

Running in Kubernetes

The example configuration will create a stateful set running Jenkins with persistent volume and using a service account to authenticate to Kubernetes API.

Running locally with minikube

A local testing cluster with one node can be created with minikube

minikube start

You may need to set the correct permissions for host mounted volumes

minikube ssh
sudo chown 1000:1000 /tmp/hostpath-provisioner/pvc-*

Then create the Jenkins namespace, controller and Service with

kubectl create namespace kubernetes-plugin
kubectl config set-context $(kubectl config current-context) --namespace=kubernetes-plugin
kubectl create -f src/main/kubernetes/service-account.yml
kubectl create -f src/main/kubernetes/jenkins.yml

Get the url to connect to with

minikube service jenkins --namespace kubernetes-plugin --url

Running in Google Container Engine GKE

Assuming you created a Kubernetes cluster named jenkins this is how to run both Jenkins and agents there.

Creating all the elements and setting the default namespace

kubectl create namespace kubernetes-plugin
kubectl config set-context $(kubectl config current-context) --namespace=kubernetes-plugin
kubectl create -f src/main/kubernetes/service-account.yml
kubectl create -f src/main/kubernetes/jenkins.yml

Connect to the ip of the network load balancer created by Kubernetes, port 80. Get the ip (in this case 104.197.19.100) with kubectl describe services/jenkins (it may take a bit to populate)

$ kubectl describe services/jenkins
Name:           jenkins
Namespace:      default
Labels:         <none>
Selector:       name=jenkins
Type:           LoadBalancer
IP:         10.175.244.232
LoadBalancer Ingress:   104.197.19.100
Port:           http    80/TCP
NodePort:       http    30080/TCP
Endpoints:      10.172.1.5:8080
Port:           agent   50000/TCP
NodePort:       agent   32081/TCP
Endpoints:      10.172.1.5:50000
Session Affinity:   None
No events.

Until Kubernetes 1.4 removes the SNATing of source ips, seems that CSRF (enabled by default in Jenkins 2) needs to be configured to avoid WARNING: No valid crumb was included in request errors. This can be done checking Enable proxy compatibility under Manage Jenkins -> Configure Global Security

Configure Jenkins, adding the Kubernetes cloud under configuration, setting Kubernetes URL to the container engine cluster endpoint or simply https://kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local. Under credentials, click Add and select Kubernetes Service Account, or alternatively use the Kubernetes API username and password. Select 'Certificate' as credentials type if the kubernetes cluster is configured to use client certificates for authentication.

Using Kubernetes Service Account will cause the plugin to use the default token mounted inside the Jenkins pod. See Configure Service Accounts for Pods for more information.

image

You may want to set Jenkins URL to the internal service IP, http://10.175.244.232 in this case, to connect through the internal network.

Set Container Cap to a reasonable number for tests, i.e. 3.

Add an image with

  • Docker image: jenkins/inbound-agent
  • Jenkins agent root directory: /home/jenkins/agent

image

Now it is ready to be used.

Tearing it down

kubectl delete namespace/kubernetes-plugin

Customizing the deployment

Modify CPUs and memory request/limits (Kubernetes Resource API)

Modify file ./src/main/kubernetes/jenkins.yml with desired limits

resources:
  limits:
    cpu: 1
    memory: 1Gi
  requests:
    cpu: 0.5
    memory: 500Mi

Note: the JVM will use the memory requests as the heap limit (-Xmx)

Building

docker build -t csanchez/jenkins-kubernetes .

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